Is Chicken Easier To Digest Than Beef

Gut microbiota had a distinct response to dietary proteins

A total of 998,150 raw reads were usable for the 32 colonic samples, with an average of 31,192 ± 4,955 reads per sample (Supplementary Figure 1A). The reads were subdivided into 837 OTUs (operation taxonomy units) at a similarity level of 2097% based on an average of 2038020%C2%B1%207080% per sample. Additional Figure 2021B There was no discernible variation in reads between any two diet groups (p 05), however compared to the casein and chicken protein groups, the beef protein group had more OTUs (p 05). While the Shannon-Wiener diversity estimates of all samples reached their plateaus (Supplementary Figure 1D), the rarefaction curves did not reach a stable state (Supplementary Figure 1C), indicating that the diversity of gut bacteria stabilized. The Goods coverage index reached an average of 99. 73 ± 0. 06%, indicating the sequencing methodology was feasible. Due to its significantly lower Shannon-Wiener diversity estimate and significantly lower number of OTUs compared to the other samples, one biological sample in the beef protein group was identified as an outlier. And thus the sample was excluded. There were no statistically significant differences (P > 0. 05, Supplementary Table 2) between the four groups in the gut microbiota coverage indices for ACE, Chao, Shannon, Simpson, and Goods.

Significant variations in colonic bacteria were found between diet groups using principle component analysis (Figure ). In PC 1, the protein groups for chicken, beef, and soy were clearly separated from those for casein and soy; in PC 2, the protein groups for chicken and beef were separated from those for casein and soy. The findings suggest that the gut microbiota’s reactions to chicken protein in the diet differed from those to casein, beef protein, and soy protein. The soy and casein protein groups showed a great similarity. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the two most common phyla across all four groups at the phylum level (Figure), accounting for 83 5, 75. 5, 85. 6, and 81. 2% of the differences between the soy, beef, chicken, and casein protein groups, respectively Firmicutes were least abundant in the chicken protein group, while Bacteroidetes were most abundant. The gut microbiota from the beef, casein, and soy protein groups could be grouped together into a single subclass, which was distinguished from those of the chicken protein group, according to phylum-level clustering analysis of gut bacteria.

LeFSe analysis was carried out at the OTU level to pinpoint particular bacteria for various dietary groups. There were 96 differential OTUs in comparison to the casein group (Figure ). Of these OTUs, the protein groups containing beef, chicken, and soy had 16, 12, and 40 OTUs higher, respectively, and the protein groups containing chicken, beef, and soy had 15, 32, and 18 OTUs lower, respectively. Specifically, the soy protein group had the highest relative abundance of OTUs for the family Ruminococcaceae, while the chicken protein group had the highest relative abundance of OTUs for the genus Lactobacillus (OTU427 and OTU746).

The composition of colonic polar metabolites varied by diets

Using 1H NMR spectrometry, a total of 67 distinct compounds were identified from all of the colonic contents (Supplementary Table 1). These compounds included 22 amino acids, 7 short chain fatty acids, 8 sugars, 4 phenolic acids, 4 amines, 2 alcohols, 2 derivatives of amino acids, 2 ketones, 5 nucleic acid components, 9 other organic acids, 1 vitamin/cofactor, and choline.

Significant differences in metabolites were found between and within groups using principle component analysis (Figure ) It was evident from the well-separated chicken protein group from the casein, beef, and soy protein groups that the diet’s chicken protein caused distinct reactions in colonic metabolites (P 05) from those to casein, beef protein, or soy protein. The soy and beef protein groups showed a great similarity.

Figure displayed the top 15 VIP scores for component 1. The findings demonstrated that the rats given soy protein had the highest levels of butyrate, glucose, and propionate. Additionally, we discovered that the soy protein group had greater levels of short chain fatty acids (923, 779, 666, and 645 μmol/L for the casein, chicken, beef, and soy protein groups, respectively, P + 05). The group that contained chicken protein had the highest level of lactate, but the lowest level of casein (1,704 vs. 217 μmol/L, respectively, P < 0. 05). Conversely, the casein group exhibited the maximum concentrations of leucine, valine, and isoleucine, whereas the chicken protein group displayed the lowest concentrations of these amino acids (P 05).

Using pairwise comparison analysis with OPLS, the effect of dietary proteins on colonic polar metabolites was determined by comparing the casein group to one of the other three groups. For every model, one orthogonal and one PLS component were computed. Classification information served as the dummy Y matrix, and 1H NMR spectral data served as the X matrix. The OPLS plot revealed a significant difference in the overall profile of colonic polar metabolites (Figure ). Between the casein and the other three protein groups, the responsible variables with top 15 VIP scores were displayed in Figure The beef protein group had higher concentrations of lactate and succinate and lower levels of uracil, alanine, butyrate, propionate, glucose, and ribose than the casein group. While galactose, uracil, butyrate, ribose, propionate, and glucose were lower in the chicken protein group, lactate was higher. Leucine, xanthine, valine, uracil, ribose, glutamate, and alanine were lower in the soy protein group, but succinate, glucose, propionate, lactate, and butyrate were higher.

Which has more protein: chicken or beef?

You might have wondered how much protein is in chicken. Chicken is higher in protein than beef because a skinless cooked chicken breast has about 43g of protein per 100g of chicken while lean cooked beef has about 26g of protein per 100g of beef.

Because of this, chicken is an excellent choice for weight loss and a suitable source of protein for those following a hypocaloric diet.